H.J.P Fokkenrood

Innovative strategies for
intermittent claudication

towards a stepped care approach and new outcome measures

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REFERENCES


References to studies included in this review

Cheetham 2004 {published data only}

Cheetham DR, Burgess L, Ellis M, Williams A, Greenhalgh
RM, Davies AH. Does supervised exercise offer adjuvant benefit over exercise advice alone for the treatment of intermittent claudication? A randomised trial. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2004;27(1): 17–23.

Collins 2011 {published and unpublished data}

Collins TC, Lunos S, Carlson T, Henderson K, Lightbourne M, Nelson B, et al.Effects of a home-based walking intervention on mobility and quality of life in people with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2011;34(10):2174–9.

Gardner 2011 {published data only}

Gardner AW, Parker DE, Montgomery PS, Scott KJ, Blevins SM. Efficacy of quantified home-based exercise and supervised exercise in patients with intermittent claudication: a randomized controlled trial. Circulation 2011;123(5):491–8.

Gardner 2012 {published data only}

Gardner AW, Montgomery PS, Parker DE. Optimal exercise program length for patients with claudication. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2012;55(5):1346–54.

Hodges 2008 {published data only}

Hodges LD, Sandercock GR, Das SK, Brodie DA. Randomized controlled trial of supervised exercise to evaluate changes in cardiac function in patients with peripheral atherosclerotic disease. Clinical Physiology Functional Imaging 2008;28(1):32–7.

Kakkos 2005 {published data only}

Kakkos SK, Geroulakos G, Nicolaides AN. Improvement of the walking ability in intermittent claudication due to superficial femoral artery occlusion with supervised exercise and pneumatic foot and calf compression: a randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2005;30(2):164–75.

Nicolai 2010 {published and unpublished data}

Nicolai SP, Hendriks EJ, Prins MH, Teijink JA. Optimizing supervised exercise therapy for patients with intermittent claudication. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2010;52(5): 1226–33.
Nicolai SPA, Prins MH, Teijink JAW. Supervised exercise therapy is more effective than walking advice in patients with intermittent claudication; a randomized multicenter study. [Dutch]. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 2011;155(2):55–62.
Nicolaï SP, Teijink JA, Prins MH, Exercise Therapy in Peripheral Arterial Disease Study Group. Multicenter randomized clinical trial of supervised exercise therapy with or without feedback versus walking advice for intermittent claudication. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2010;52(2): 348–55.
Teijink JAW, Prins MH. (Cost) Effectiveness study of exercise therapy in patients with peripheral arterial disease. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00279994?order=1 2006.
van Asselt AD, Nicolaï SP, Joore MA, Prins MH, Teijink JA, Exercise Therapy in Peripheral Arterial Disease Study Group. Cost-effectiveness of exercise therapy in patients with intermittent claudication: supervised exercise therapy versus a 'go home and walk' advice. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2011;41(1):97–103.

Parr 2009 {published data only}

Parr BM, Noakes TD, Derman EW. Peripheral arterial disease and intermittent claudication: efficacy of short-term upper body strength training, dynamic exercise training, and advice to exercise at home. South African Medical Journal 2009;99(11):800–4.

Patterson 1997 {published data only}

* Patterson RB, Pinto B, Marcus B, Colucci A, Braun T, Roberts M. Value of a supervised exercise program for the therapy of arterial claudication. Journal of Vascular Surgery 1997;25(2):312–9.
Pinto BM, Marcus BH, Patterson RB, Roberts M, Colucci A, Braun C. On-site versus home exercise programs: psychological benefits for individuals with arterial claudication. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 1997;5: 311.

Regensteiner 1997 {published data only}

Regensteiner JG, Meyer TJ, Krupski WC, Cranford LS, Hiatt WR. Hospitals vs home-based exercise rehabilitation for patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Angiology 1997;48(4):291–300.

Sanderson 2006 {published data only}

Sanderson B, Askew C, Stewart I, Walker P, Gibbs H, Green
S. Short-term effects of cycle and treadmill training on exercise tolerance in peripheral arterial disease. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2006;44(1):119–27.

Savage 2001 {published data only}

Savage P, Ricci MA, Lynn M, Gardner A, Knight S, Brochu M, et al.Effects of home versus supervised exercise for patients with intermittent claudication. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 2001;21(3):152–7.

Stewart 2008 {published data only}

Stewart AH, Smith FC, Baird RN, Lamont PM. Local versus systemic mechanisms underlying supervised exercise training for intermittent claudication. Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2008;42(4):314–20.

Treat-Jacobson 2009 {published and unpublished data}

Bronas UG, Treat-Jacobson D, Leon AS. Comparison of the effect of upper body-ergometry aerobic training vs
treadmill training on central cardiorespiratory improvement and walking distance in patients with claudication. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2011;53(6):1557–64.
* Treat-Jacobson D, Bronas UG, Leon AS. Efficacy of arm- ergometry versus treadmill exercise training to improve walking distance in patients with claudication. Vascular Medicine 2009;14(3):203–13.
References to studies excluded from this review

Arosio 1999 {published data only}

Arosio E, Cuzzolin L, De Marchi S, Minuz P, Degan M, Crivellente F, et al.Increased endogenous nitric oxide production induced by physical exercise in peripheral
arterial occlusive disease patients. Life Sciences 1999;65(26): 2815–22.

Arosio 2001 {published data only}

Arosio E, Minuz P, Prior M, Zuliani V, Gaino S, De Marchi S, et al.Vascular adhesion molecule-1 and markers of platelet function before and after a treatment with iloprost or a supervised physical exercise program in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Life Sciences 2001;69(4):421–33.

Ciuffetti 1994 {published data only}

Ciuffetti G, Paltriccia R, Lombardini R, Lupattelli G, Pasqualini L, Mannarino E. Treating peripheral arterial occlusive disease: pentoxifylline vs exercise. International Angiology 1994;13(1):33–9.

Collins 2003 {published data only}

Collins EG, Edwin Langbein W, Orebaugh C, Bammert C, Hanson K, Reda D, et al.PoleStriding exercise and vitamin E for management of peripheral vascular disease. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2003;35(3):384–93.

Collins 2005 {published data only}

Collins EG, Langbein WE, Orebaugh C, Bammert C, Hanson K, Reda D, et al.Cardiovascular training effect associated with polestriding exercise in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2005;20(3):177–85.

Crowther 2008 {published data only}

Crowther RG, Spinks WL, Leicht AS, Sangla K, Quigley F, Golledge J. Effects of a long-term exercise program on lower limb mobility, physiological responses, walking performance, and physical activity levels in patients with
peripheral arterial disease. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2008;
47(2):303–9.

Dahllöf 1976 {published data only}

Dahllöf AG, Holm J, Scherstén T, Sivertsson R. Peripheral arterial insufficiency; effect of physical training on walking tolerance, calf blood flow, and blood flow resistance. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 1976;8(1): 19–26.

Degischer 2002 {published data only}

Degischer S, Labs KH, Hochstrasser J, Aschwanden M, Tschoepl M, Jaeger KA. Physical training for intermittent claudication: a comparison of structured rehabilitation versus home-based training. Vascular Medicine 2002;7(2): 109–15.

Fakhry 2011 {published data only}

Fakhry F, Spronk S, de Ridder M, den Hoed PT, Hunink MG. Long-term effects of structured home-based exercise program on functional capacity and quality of life in patients with intermittent claudication. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation 2011;92(7):1066–73.

Fowler 2002 {published data only}

Fowler B, Jamrozik K, Norman P, Allen Y, Wilkinson E. Improving maximum walking distance in early peripheral arterial disease: randomised controlled trial. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2002;48(4):269–75.

Gardner 2001 {published data only}

Gardner AW, Katzel LI, Sorkin JD, Bradham DD, Hochberg MC, Flinn WR, et al.Exercise rehabilitation improves functional outcomes and peripheral circulation in patients with intermittent claudication: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 2001;49(6):755–62.

Gardner 2002 {published data only}

Gardner AW, Katzel LI, Sorkin JD, Goldberg AP. Effects of long-term exercise rehabilitation on claudication distances in patients with peripheral arterial disease: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 2002;22(3):192–8.

Gardner 2005 {published data only}

Gardner AW, Montgomery PS, Flinn WR, Katzel LI. The effect of exercise intensity on the response to exercise rehabilitation in patients with intermittent claudication. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2005;42(4):702–9.

Gelin 2001 {published data only}

Gelin J, Jivegard L, Taft C, Karlsson J, Sullivan M, Dahllöf A-G, et al.Treatment efficacy of intermittent claudication by surgical intervention, supervised physical exercise training compared to no treatment in unselected randomised patients I: one year results of functional and physiological improvements. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2001;22(2):107–13.

Gibellini 2000 {published data only}

Gibellini R, Fanello M, Bardile AF, Salerno M, Aloi T, Gibellini R, et al.Exercise training in intermittent claudication. International Angiology 2000;19(1):8–13.

Greenhalgh 2008 {published data only}

Greenhalgh RM, Belch JJ, Brown LC, Gaines PA, Gao L, Reise JA, et al.Mimic Trial Participants. The adjuvant benefit of angioplasty in patients with mild to moderate
49
intermittent claudication (MIMIC) managed by supervised exercise, smoking cessation advice and best medical therapy: results from two randomised trials for stenotic femoropopliteal and aortoiliac arterial disease. European Journal Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2008;36(6): 680–8.

Grizzo 2011 {published data only}

Grizzo Cucato G, de Moraes Forjaz CL, Kanegusuku H, da Rocha Chehuen M, Riani Costa LA, Wolosker N,
et al.Effects of walking and strength training on resting and exercise cardiovascular responses in patients with intermittent claudication. Vasa 2011;40(5):390–7.

Hiatt 1990 {published data only}

Hiatt WR, Regensteiner JG, Hargarten ME, Wolfel EE, Brass EP. Benefit of exercise conditioning for patients with peripheral arterial disease. Circulation 1990;81(2):602–9.

Hiatt 1994 {published data only}

Hiatt WR, Wolfel EE, Meier RH, Regensteiner JG. Superiority of treadmill walking exercise versus strength training for patients with peripheral arterial disease. Implications for the mechanism of the training response. Circulation 1994;90(4):1866–74.

Hobbs 2007 {published data only}

Hobbs SD, Marshall T, Fegan C, Adam DJ, Bradbury AW. The effect of supervised exercise and cilostazol on coagulation and fibrinolysis in intermittent claudication: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2007;45(1):65–70.

Jansen 1991 {published data only}

Jansen T, Weiss T, Amendt K, Hsu E, Hubsch-Muller C, Diehm C. Effect of a 2-year ambulatory vascular sports program on walking distance in claudication patients--a controlled study [German]. Vasa Supplementum 1991;33: 175.

Krause 1974 {published data only}

Krause D. Results of physical therapy of peripheral arterial circulatory disorders(III) [Ergebnisse bei der physikalischen therapie peripherer arterieller durchblutungsstorungen (III)]. Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 1974;116(8): 385–8.

Kruidenier 2011 {published data only}

Kruidenier LM, Nicolaï SP, Rouwet EV, Peters RJ, Prins MH, Teijink JA. Additional supervised exercise therapy after a percutaneous vascular intervention for peripheral arterial disease: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 2011;22(7):961–8.

Langbein 2002 {published data only}

Langbein WE, Collins EG, Orebaugh C, Maloney C, Williams KJ, Littooy FN, et al.Increasing exercise tolerance of persons limited by claudication pain using polestriding. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2002;35(5):887–93.

Larsen 1966 {published data only}

Larsen OA, Lassen NA. Effect of daily muscular exercise in patients with intermittent claudication. Lancet 1966;2 (7473):1093–6.

Leicht 2011 {published data only}

Leicht AS, Crowther RG, Golledge J. Influence of peripheral arterial disease and supervised walking on heart rate variability. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2011;54(5):1352–9.

Leon 2005 {published data only}

Leon AS. Does long-term aerobic exercise slow progression of atherosclerosis?. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 2005; 15(4):285–6.

Lepantalo 1991 {published data only}

Lepantalo M, Kalajo K, Lilius G. Does drug treatment have a placebo effect on programmed training in intermittent claudication? A randomized clinical trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 1991;5(1):65–9.

Manfredini 2008 {published data only}

Manfredini F, Malagoni AM, Mascoli F, Mandini S, Taddia MC, Basaglia N, et al.Training rather than walking: the test in-train out program for home-based rehabilitation in peripheral arteriopathy. Circulation Journal 2008;72(6): 946–52.

McDermott 2004 {published data only}

McDermott MM, Tiukinhoy S, Greenland P, Liu K, Pearce WH, Guralnik JM, et al.A pilot exercise intervention to improve lower extremity functioning in peripheral arterial disease unaccompanied by intermittent claudication. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 2004;24(3): 187–96.

McDermott 2009 {published data only}

McDermott MM, Ades P, Guralnik JM, Dyer A, Ferrucci L, Liu K, et al.Treadmill exercise and resistance training in patients with peripheral arterial disease with and without intermittent claudication: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2009;301(2):165–74.

Menêses 2011 {published data only}

Menêses AL, de Lima GH, Forjaz CL, Lima AH, Silva GQ, Cucato GG, et al.Impact of a supervised strength training or walking training over a subsequent unsupervised therapy period on walking capacity in patients with claudication. Journal of Vascular Nursing 2011;29(2):81–6.

Mika 2005 {published data only}

Mika P, Spodaryk K, Cencora A. Effects of treadmill training on walking distance and lower limb blood flow in patients with intermittent claudication. Medical Rehabilitation 2005;9(1):3–9.

Mika 2006 {published data only}

Mika P, Spodaryk K, Cencora A, Mika A. Red blood cell deformability in patients with claudication after pain-free treadmill training. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 2006 Jul;16(4):335–40.

Mika 2011 {published data only}

Mika P, Wilk B, Mika A, Marchewka A, Nizankowski R. The effect of pain-free treadmill training on fibrinogen, haematocrit, and lipid profile in patients with claudication. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 2011;18(5):754–60.

Murphy 2012 {published data only}

Murphy TP, Cutlip DE, Regensteiner JG, Mohler ER, Cohen DJ, Reynolds MR, et al.CLEVER Study
Investigators. Supervised exercise versus primary stenting for claudication resulting from aortoiliac peripheral artery disease. Six-month outcomes from the claudication: exercise versus endoluminal revascularization (CLEVER) study. Circulation 2012;125(1):130–9.

Nawaz 2001 {published data only}

Nawaz S, Walker RD, Wilkinson CH, Saxton JM, Pockley AG, Wood RF. The inflammatory response to upper and lower limb exercise and the effects of exercise training in patients with claudication. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2001; 33(2):392–9.

Nielsen 1975 {published data only}

Nielsen SL, Gyntelberg F, Larsen B, Lassen NA. Hospital versus home training, a clinical trial. Aktuelle Probleme in der Angiologie 1975;30:121–6.

Nielsen 1977 {published data only}

Nielsen SL, Larsen B, Prahl M, Jensen CT, Jensen BE, Wenkens V. Hospital training compared with home training in patients with intermittent claudication. Ugeskrift for laeger 1977;139(46):2733–6.

Ritti-Dias 2010 {published data only}

Ritti-Dias RM, Wolosker N, de Moraes Forjaz CL, Carvalho CR, Cucato GG, Leão PP, et al.Strength training increases walking tolerance in intermittent claudication patients: randomized trial. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2010;51(1): 89–95.

Saxton 2011 {published data only}

Saxton JM, Zwierska I, Blagojevic M, Choksy SA, Nawaz S, Pockley AG. Upper- versus lower-limb aerobic exercise training on health-related quality of life in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2011;53(5):1265–73.

Schlager 2011 {published data only}

Schlager O, Giurgea A, Schuhfried O, Seidinger D, Hammer A, Gröger M, et al.Exercise training increases endothelial progenitor cells and decreases asymmetric dimethylarginine in peripheral arterial disease: a randomized controlled trial. Atherosclerosis 2011;217(1):240–8.

Schlager 2012 {published data only}

Schlager O, Hammer A, Giurgea A, Schuhfried O, Fialka- Moser V, Gschwandtner M, et al.Impact of exercise training on inflammation and platelet activation in patients with intermittent claudication. Swiss Medical Weekly 2012;14: 142.

Spronk 2009 {published data only}

Spronk S, Bosch JL, den Hoed PT, Veen HF, Pattynama PM, Hunink MG. Intermittent claudication: clinical effectiveness of endovascular revascularization versus supervised hospital-based exercise training--randomized controlled trial. Radiology 2009;250(2):586–95.

Taft 2001 {published data only}

Taft C, Karlsson J, Gelin J, Jivegard L, Sandström R, Arfvidsson B, et al.Treatment efficacy of intermittent claudication by invasive therapy, supervised physical exercise training compared to no treatment in unselected randomised patients. II. One year results of health-related quality of life. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2001;22(2):114–23.

Taft 2004 {published data only}

Taft C, Sullivan M, Lundholm K, Karlsson J, Gelin J, Jivegard L. Predictors of treatment outcome in intermittent claudication. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2004;27(1):24–32.

Tebbutt 2011 {published data only}

Tebbutt N, Robinson L, Todhunter J, Jonker L. A plantar flexion device exercise programme for patients with peripheral arterial disease: a randomised prospective feasibility study. Physiotherapy 2011;97(3):244–9.

Tew 2009 {published data only}

Tew G, Nawaz S, Zwierska I, Saxton JM. Limb-specific and cross-transfer effects of arm-crank exercise training in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Clinical Science 2009;117(12):405–13.

Tisi 1997 {published data only}

Tisi PV, Hulse M, Chulakadabba A, Gosling P, Shearman CP. Exercise training for intermittent claudication: does it adversely affect biochemical markers of the exercise-induced inflammatory response?. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 1997;14(5):344–50.

Tsai 2002 {published data only}

Tsai JC, Chan P, Wang CH, Jeng C, Hsieh MH, Kao PF, et al.The effects of exercise training on walking function and perception of health status in elderly patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Journal of Internal Medicine 2002;252(5):448–55.

Walker 2000 {published data only}

Walker RD, Nawaz S, Wilkinson CH, Saxton JM, Pockley AG, Wood RF. Influence of upper- and lower-limb exercise training on cardiovascular function and walking distances in patients with intermittent claudication. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2000;31(4):662–9.

Wood 2006 {published data only}

Wood RE, Sanderson BE, Askew CD, Walker PJ, Green S, Stewart IB. Effect of training on the response of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor to exercise in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Clinical Science 2006;111 (6):401–9.

Zwierska 2005 {published data only}

Zwierska I, Walker RD, Choksy SA, Male JS, Pockley AG, Saxton JM. Upper- vs lower-limb aerobic exercise rehabilitation in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2005;42(6):1122–30.
References to ongoing studies

Frans 2012 {published data only}

Anon. SUPERvised exercise therapy or immediate PTA for intermittent claudication in patients with an iliac artery obstruction: a randomized controlled trial. SUPER study, 2011. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01385774.
* Frans FA, Bipat S, Reekers JA, Legemate DA, Koelemay MJW, on behalf of the SUPER Study Collaborators. SUPERvised exercise therapy or immediate PTA for intermittent claudication in patients with an iliac artery obstruction - A multicentre randomised controlled trial; Super study design and rationale. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2012;43(4):466–71.

Additional references

 

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Aquino R, Johnnides C, Makaroun M, Whittle JC, Muluk VS, Kelley ME, et al.Natural history of claudication: long- term serial follow-up study of 1244 claudicants. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2001;34(6):962–70.

Bartelink 2004

Bartelink ML, Stoffers HE, Biesheuvel CJ, Hoes AW. Walking exercise in patients with intermittent claudication. Experience in routine clinical practice. British Journal of General Practice 2004;54(500):196-200.

Beckitt 2012

Beckitt TA, Day J, Morgan M, Lamont PM. Calf muscle oxygen saturation and the effects of supervised exercise training for intermittent claudication. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2012;56(2):470–5.

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Dormandy J, Heeck L, Vig S. The natural risk of claudication: risk of life and limb. Seminars in Vascular Surgery 1999;12(2):123–37.

Erb 1898

Erb W. About intermittent walking and nerve disturbances due to vascular disease [Über das "intermitterende Hinken" und adere nervöse Storungen in Folge von Gefässerkrankungen]. Deutsch Z Nervenheilk 1898;13: 1–76.

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Fakhry F, van de Luijtgaarden KM, Bax L, den Hoed PT, Hunink MG, Rouwet EV, et al.Supervised walking therapy in patients with intermittent claudication. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2012;56(4):1132–42.

Fokkenrood 2012

Fokkenrood HJ, Lauret GJ, Scheltinga MR, Spreeuwenberg C, de Bie RA, Teijink JA. Multidisciplinary treatment for peripheral arterial occlusive disease and the role of eHealth and mHealth. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare 2012; 5:257-63.

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References to other published versions of this review

Bendermacher 2006

Bendermacher BLW, Willigendael EM, Teijink JAW, Prins MH. Supervised exercise therapy versus non-supervised exercise therapy for intermittent claudication. (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005263.pub2]
* Indicates the major publication for the study